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The Eustachian tube is a small canal connecting the ear to the nose. Patency of the Eustachian tube may be impaired with colds and allergies. Serious cases require observation by an otorhinolaryngologist. Mild cases can be managed at home with home remedies, over-the-counter drugs, and prescription solutions.
Causes of Eustachitis
The inflammatory process of the Eustachian tube can be considered as a complication of certain diseases. Such pathologies, in the first place, include:
- acute respiratory infections
- bent nasal septum,
- benign and malignant neoplasms of the nasopharynx,
- allergies in the acute stage (hay fever, allergic rhinorrhea),
- chronic inflammation involving the tonsils, sinuses, pharynx,
- infections (syphilis, tuberculosis, candidiasis, scarlet fever, chlamydia),
- incorrect blowing out.
In addition, predisposing factors leading to inflammation of the Eustachian tube include a decrease in the body's natural resistance forces, its reactivity and immune forces in general.
The onset of the disease is usually fast. Common symptoms resemble a flu-like illness with muscles, joints, fatigue, and fever. Inflammation of the larynx is manifested by a sensation of scratches and sore throat, at the same time with a bonnet and a dry, irritable, barking cough, typical of the first days of the illness. After a few days, the cough becomes productive. In the case of free laryngitis, sputum is a mucosa, if there is bacterial superinfection, it is stained with a mixture of pus.
The study is dominated by the red larynx of the larynx, swelling and shortness of breath are unusual. Sponges are red and soaked. Concomitant involvement of other parts of the upper respiratory tract is almost normal. Treatment of viral laryngitis is primarily symptomatic. We also prefer local aerosol therapy with anti-inflammatory and antibiotic effects, as well as with common antipyretics, analgesics, expectorants and mucolytics with a productive cough. An antitussive can be given for an annoying cough.
What are the types of eustachitis
In addition to the fact that eustachitis can be acute or chronic, five types of tubootitis are distinguished:
With predisposing factors, the same catarrhal tubootitis can transform into purulent otitis media, and soon worsen by the formation of adhesions in the tube.
Mucolytics and antitussive drugs should not be combined. Due to the prevalence of viral etiology, antibiotics are not recommended for uncomplicated laryngitis. Complications of the disease can occur when the infection spreads to the lower respiratory tract and with the formation of tracheitis, bronchitis and pneumonia. Laryngeal edema in the larynx is manifested in an inspiring stridor and inspirational shortness of breath. The condition requires hospitalization in a medical institution with an accessible department of anesthesiology-resuscitation, spraying with an admixture of mucolytics, systemic administration of corticosteroids and antibiotic therapy suspected of bacterial etiology.
The clinical picture of the disease
Symptoms of inflammation of the Eustachian tube are quite typical. The classical clinical picture of tubo-otitis refers to:
The general condition in the form of intoxication, fever and weakness does not occur. During swallowing or yawning, the ear canal widens, due to which the symptoms of inflammation of the Eustachian tube may decrease. The chronic process is characterized by more noticeable and sustained hearing loss, with imaginary periods of improvement, alternating with exacerbations. In addition, from the symptoms, a constant feeling of heaviness from the ear, the tube involved in the pathological process is added.
Significant shortness of breath, decreased oxygen saturation, and inevitable strangulation require a condom or tracheostomy. In conclusion, upper respiratory tract infections and swallowing pathways are some of the most common causes of a patient's visit to a general practitioner. The range of symptoms is very wide, as is the spectrum of infections. Differentiation of bacterial and viral infections is a complex diagnosis. Differential diagnosis usually helps with laboratory tests. For common viruses, we recommend symptomatic therapy and treatment regimens; antibiotics are not indicated.
Symptoms of inflammation of the Eustachian tube, although typical, but to clarify the diagnosis, diagnosis is required. Mandatory diagnostic measures include:
- diagnostic tests
- microscopic, bacteriological examination.
If the disease is caused by an allergic factor, then specific allergological tests are performed. As an additional diagnostic method, computed tomography and radiography are used, including with the aim of determining the root cause.
With bacterial inflammation, an indication of antibiotic therapy is undeniable. Empirical treatment is recommended with possible treatment resulting from cultivation. It is very important that the use of antibiotics unnecessarily unnecessarily increases the cost of treatment and the risk of resistant strains of bacteria. The treatment of an uncomplicated disease is led by a general practitioner. In the event of a serious course or complication, the patient should be immediately sent to a specialized workplace.
Treatment of ears, nose and throat. Modern rational treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections. The basics of antimicrobial therapy. Sudden injuries and injuries of breathing and swallowing. Special otorhinolaryngology. Diseases of the ear, nose and throat. Worm contamination is a common complication of upper respiratory tract infections. This is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the drum, accompanied by sudden signs of acute infection. They occur at any age, most often between the month and year of the child.
The following middle ear functions can be distinguished:
- Sound conduction. With its help, the sound is transmitted to the middle ear. The external part picks up sound vibrations, then they pass through the auditory canal, reaching the membrane. This leads to its vibration, which affects the auditory ossicles. Through them, vibrations are transmitted to the inner ear through a special membrane.
- Uniform distribution of pressure in the ear. When atmospheric pressure is very different from what occurs in the middle ear, it is leveled off through the Eustachian tube. Therefore, when flying or when immersed in water, the ears are temporarily blocked, as they adapt to new pressure conditions.
- Safety function. The middle part of the ear is equipped with special muscles that protect the organ from injuries. With very strong sounds, these muscles reduce the mobility of the auditory ossicles to a minimum. Therefore, the membranes do not burst. However, if strong sounds are very sharp and sudden, the muscles may not have time to fulfill their functions. Therefore, it is important to guard against such situations, otherwise you can partially or completely lose your hearing.
Thus, the middle ear performs very important functions and is an integral part of the auditory organ. But it is very sensitive, so it should be protected from negative influences. . Otherwise, various diseases may appear, leading to hearing impairment.
Organ of hearing - ear - in humans and mammals consists of three parts:
- outer ear
- middle ear
- inner ear
Outer ear consists of the auricle and the external auditory meatus, which extends into the depths of the temporal bone of the skull and is closed by the eardrum. The shell is formed by cartilage, covered on both sides of the skin. With the help of the sink, sound vibrations of air are captured. The mobility of the shell is provided by the muscles. In humans, they are rudimentary; in animals, their mobility provides a better orientation with respect to the sound source.
The external auditory meatus looks like a tube 30 mm long, lined with skin, in which there are special glands that secrete earwax. The auditory canal directs the captured sound to the middle ear. Paired auditory canals allow you to more accurately localize the sound source. In the depths of the auditory meatus, they are covered by an oval-shaped thin eardrum. From the side of the middle ear, in the middle of the eardrum, the handle of the malleus is strengthened. The membrane is elastic; upon impact of sound waves, it repeats these vibrations without distortion.
Middle ear - begins behind the eardrum and is a chamber filled with air. The middle ear is connected via the auditory (Eustachian) tube to the nasopharynx (therefore, the pressure on both sides of the eardrum is the same). It contains three auditory ossicles, interconnected:
With its handle, the hammer is connected to the eardrum, perceives its vibrations and through two other bones transfers these vibrations to the oval window of the inner ear in which the air vibrations are converted into fluid vibrations. In this case, the amplitude of the oscillations decreases, and their strength increases by about 20 times.
In the wall separating the middle ear from the inside, in addition to the oval window, there is also a round window, tightened by the membrane. The round window membrane makes it possible to fully transmit the vibrational energy of the liquid hammer and allows the liquid to oscillate as a whole.
It is located in the thickness of the temporal bone and consists of a complex system of interconnected channels and cavities, called the labyrinth. It distinguishes two parts:
- bone maze - filled with liquid (perilymph). The bone maze is divided into three parts:
- bone snail
- three semicircular bone canals
- webbed maze - filled with fluid (endolymph). It has the same parts as the bone:
- the membranous vestibule represented by two sacs - an elliptical (oval) sac and a spherical (round) sac
- web snail
- three webbed semicircular canals
The membranous labyrinth is located inside the bone, all parts of the membranous labyrinth are smaller than the corresponding dimensions of the bone, therefore there is a cavity between their walls, called the perilymphotic space, made by a lymphoid-like liquid - perilymph.
The organ of hearing is the cochlea, the remaining parts of the labyrinth make up the organ of balance that holds the body in a certain position.
Snail - an organ that perceives sound vibrations and turns them into nervous excitement. The cochlear canal forms 2.5 turns in humans. Along the entire length, the cochlear osseous canal is divided by two septa: a thinner vestibular membrane (or Reisner's membrane) and a denser main membrane.
The main membrane consists of fibrous tissue, including about 24 thousand special fibers (auditory strings) of different lengths and stretched across the membrane - from the axis of the cochlea to its outer wall (like a ladder). The longest strings are located at the top, at the base - the most shortened. At the top of the cochlea, the membranes are connected and there is a cochlea (helicotrem) hole in them for communication of the cochlea up and down.
With the cavity of the middle ear, the cochlea communicates through a round window, tightened by the membrane, with the cavity of the vestibule through the oval window.
The vestibular membrane and the main membrane divide the bone channel of the cochlea into three strokes:
- the upper (from the oval window to the top of the cochlea) is the vestibular staircase, communicates with the lower channel of the cochlea through the cochlea
- lower (from a round window to the top of the cochlea) - the drum ladder, communicates with the upper channel of the cochlea.
The upper and lower passages of the cochlea are filled with a perilymph, which is separated from the middle ear cavity by an oval and round window membrane.
At least one inflammation of the middle ear affects 80% of children. The ear is an organ of hearing that conveys the perception of sound. We divide it into external, secondary and internal. The outer ear is formed by a bolt, an external ear canal and a drum. The middle ear is the bone in the muzzle bone, lined with the mucous membrane, containing three medium-sized bones - a hammer, anvil and stirrup. These tiny clusters are connected to each other. Through a hammer, they merge with the drum, creating a moving chain that transmits the vibration of the drum to the inner ear.
The inner ear consists of a system of tiny cavities and channels with its own sensory device, which transmits the sound of nerve fibers to the brain, where we can perceive it. The Eustachian tube is used to connect the middle ear cavity with the nasopharynx. It serves to balance the pressure between the medium and the external environment and to remove the secretion of the mucous membrane into the nasal cavity.
In addition, the otolaryngologist can massage the eardrum, which favorably affects her condition and speeds up the healing process. During the resolution of the disease, the Valsalva maneuver can be used. It consists in the fact that a person should try to exhale strongly, with his nose and mouth closed. Through this technique, the pressure of the internal cavities of the pipe is leveled with respect to atmospheric pressure.
How does middle ear inflammation develop?
It usually accompanies upper respiratory tract infections, and the cause is similar to nasal sinusitis. The most common infection of the nasopharynx is through the Eustachian tube - the connection between the nasopharynx and the middle ear. The transition of infection becomes possible due to a change in pressure in the inflammation or the mechanism of the crunch. The situation in children is exacerbated by the frequently encountered enlarged nasal almonds, called hypertrophic adenoid vegetation, which clogs the mouth of the Eustachian tube and prevents secretion.
Of the physiotherapeutic procedures, laser therapy, magnetotherapy and ultra-high frequency therapy are suitable. It is also used in combination with muscle electrostimulation.
In herbal medicine with Eustachian tube inflammation, many plants are used. These primarily include:
In young children, the tube is very short and, moreover, is located almost horizontally, so it is easier to transfer the infection from the nasopharynx. Another problem is that young children cannot spit. The second option is to spread a respiratory tract infection in the bloodstream with flu, spleen, or smallpox. Only rarely does inflammation of the middle ear occur when a mediocre connection is created with the external environment, for example, when the drum is destroyed.
Inflammatory agents are various viral and bacterial organisms that penetrate the Middle Ages. Less serious inflammations are caused by viruses, such as rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, influenza viruses, and others. Purulent inflammations of the middle ear are caused by bacteria.
- pine buds
- dandelion roots
- calendula flowers
- celandine root.
The necessary combination of plants or one thing is selected, infused in a thermos and drunk fractionally throughout the day. Such treatment is auxiliary and does not replace antibiotic therapy and other proposed methods.
General description of pathology
The Eustachian tube is a special structure of the ear that connects the middle ear cavity and the nasopharynx. Due to this, the pressure is evened out between the middle ear cavity and the environment. The tube performs a specific protective function. It prevents pathogens from entering the inner ear.
Inflammation of the auditory tube extends simultaneously to several adjacent sections of the auditory canal. Very often, the pathology affects that is characterized by severe pain and a marked decrease in hearing . At the very beginning of the disease, a person may not notice inflammation. In diseases caused by infection, the pathology develops very slowly.
Eustachyite is not as harmless as it might seem at first glance. If pathology is not treated, then rapid tissue disintegration will begin.
Staphylococci and streptococci most often lead to inflammation of the Eustachian tube. In young children, the cause of the disease often becomes pneumococci, as well as various pathogens of respiratory diseases.
With reduced immunity, infectious processes quickly pass from the nasopharynx to the ears.In this case, both the outer and inner ears are affected. The mucous membrane of the ear canal swells and becomes inflamed, due to which patency is impaired. In this case, a very favorable environment is created for the life and reproduction of various bacteria and viruses.
If a person is prone to allergic reactions or has an increased formation of ear secretion, then he is prone to inflammation of the Eustachian tube. The main reasons for the development of this pathology can be called:
- Long-term diseases of the nasopharynx of an infectious nature.
- Adenoiditis in children.
- Congenital or acquired structural defects.
- Various nasopharyngeal tumors.
- Sudden changes in atmospheric pressure.
Sometimes the disease is diagnosed in people of different ages after operations, injuries or injuries. With edema of the Eustachian canal, air intake into the structural element of the ear is disrupted, which leads to a decrease in pressure in the eardrum. As a result of this, the membrane is drawn inward as if, and an effusion appears in the ear cavity. As a result of severe inflammation, the auditory tube and tympanic cavity are affected.
If inflammation of the Eustachian tube is not treated in a timely manner, then the disease quickly passes into the purulent stage.
Medial ear inflammation - symptoms
In children, the disease is preceded by symptoms of an acute upper respiratory tract infection, especially the nasopharynx. Middle cavity disease often begins as a viral infection when symptoms such as licking, tingling in the ear, hearing impairment, and mild discomfort are present. A secondary bacterial infection is gradually occurring, secretion in the middle ear cavity multiplies, which, putting pressure on the nerve endings, leads to an increase in pain in the ear. In infants with moderate inflammation, this appears to be general anxiety, crying, anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Such plants can cause an allergic reaction of the body and exacerbate symptoms, so initially you need to try a small part of the infusion and monitor your condition.
If warming-up procedures are not prohibited by the attending doctor, then from budgetary methods, you can try to breathe dry potato steam or carry out similar inhalation procedures.
The child laid his head on the healthy side. In developed inflammation, increased anxiety occurs mainly in a horizontal position, when the head and neck become inflamed. Due to the increasing pressure of secretion, spontaneous perforation of the drum and the release of purulent secretion with the addition of blood to the external auditory canal often occur.
The severity of symptoms depends on the form of pathology. Inflammation of the auditory tube can be acute, chronic and allergic. The acute form of the disease most often develops against the background of acute respiratory diseases. Most often, only one ear is affected. But if the treatment has not been carried out for a long time or was chosen incorrectly, then two organs of hearing can simultaneously be included in the inflammatory process.
In acute eustachitis, the symptoms of the disease usually appear very brightly. Only in some adult patients can the symptoms be somewhat erased. The main symptoms of inflammation of the auditory canal are:
- Constant feeling of nasal congestion. The patient's condition improves somewhat with yawning or swallowing saliva.
- Hearing loss. It can be temporarily restored by changing the position of the head. At this time, the sound of iridescent liquid is heard in the ears.
- Tinnitus is constantly present.
- The head feels heaviness and pain.
- There is a feeling that your own voice sounds as if from the side. When talking, the voice echoes.
- Ear pain. Sometimes the pain is minor, but most often the pain is very severe, which gives to the head.
- Body temperature may remain normal or rise to subfebrile marks.
- General weakness and malaise are felt.
If acute inflammation of the Eustachian tube is not treatable for a long time, then the disease becomes chronic. Polyps, cysts, and structural defects in ENT organs can quickly provoke chronic disease. In the chronic process, all symptoms of the disease are erased. Only in the acute stage can a characteristic picture of the acute course of the disease be observed.
On examination, you may notice swelling of the auditory tube. Ear shells are inflamed, narrowing of the opening is noticeable. When edema decreases, and the vessels expand. The walls of the capillaries become more penetrating.
In the chronic form of tubootitis, atrophic changes occur in the ear cavity and on the membrane itself . The eardrum is a little cloudy, on it sections of necrosis may appear. With chronic inflammation of the auditory canal, the following characteristic symptoms are observed:
- Deformation and retraction of the membrane.
- Narrowing the lumen of the duct.
- Hearing impairment.
- Hyperemia of some individual sites.
Diagnose changes in tissues in the ear cavity can only be done by a specialist when examined with special tools.
The auditory canal in children is shorter and more direct, so children are more prone to eustachitis.
When making a diagnosis, the determining role is played by the collection of anamnesis. When interviewing a patient, the doctor finds out if the person has recently had respiratory or infectious diseases. An otoscopy is performed, thanks to which you can see an inverted membrane with inflamed capillaries.
- Bakposeva from the ear to identify the causative agent of the disease.
- Allergy tests.
- Ear manometry and audiometry.
- CT scan.
To determine the degree of the inflammatory process in the body, the patient submits a clinical blood test. By the level of leukocytes and ESR, you can determine how acute the disease is.
Eustachitis in children and adults can be treated on an outpatient basis, but we must not forget that therapy should be comprehensive. The main objectives of the treatment are as follows:
- Normal passability of the auditory tube should be restored.
- Elimination of pathogenic microflora, which led to inflammation.
- Hearing restoration and elimination of other symptoms of the disease.
The treatment regimen for eustachitis depends on the pathogen that triggered the disease. With viral tubootitis, antiviral agents are prescribed - Groprinosin, Acyclovir and Viferon. If the disease is caused by bacteria, then prescribe Azithromycin, Zinnat or Augmentin.
In addition, medication for inflammation of the Eustachian tube may include such drugs:
- Antihistamines - Claritin, Loratadine or Tavegil.
- Anti-inflammatory drugs - Nise and Nurofen.
- Nasal vasoconstrictor drops - Sanorin, Nazivin, or xylometazoline-based drugs.
- Glucocorticosteroids. These drugs are prescribed primarily in the form of a solution for washing the ear canals.
- Immunomodulators and vitamin complexes.
- Antibiotics and local antiseptics.
In addition, physiotherapeutic procedures and pneumomassage are prescribed to restore the elasticity of the eardrum. If necessary, the auditory tube can be purged with air according to the Politzer method .
If treatment is started in a timely manner, then it takes no more than a week to fully recover. In a chronic process, surgical intervention may be required.
Middle Ear Inflammation - Complications
After perforation of the drum, pain in the ear is partially relieved. A common complication is spontaneous perforation of the drum, which can cause scarring and hearing loss during repeated rupture. Infections can migrate from the middle ear to the surrounding bone structure and cause mastoiditis, i.e. inflammation of the bony protrusion behind the ear canal or it can spread to the brain or brain tissue.
In addition to drug therapy, alternative treatments may be prescribed.
- Squeeze juice from aloe leaves and dilute it with water 1: 1. The resulting composition is dripped into the sore ear 3 times a day, 4 drops.
- Bake the onion, squeeze the juice from it and mix in half with saline. The resulting drops drip into the nose 2 times a day.
- Grate onions on a fine grater, moisten cotton wool in the onion mass and insert into the ear for 15 minutes. This procedure is carried out once a day.
- Calendula is brewed at the rate of a tablespoon of grass in a glass of water, insisted and drunk half a glass twice a day.
The most serious complication of eustachitis is purulent otitis media. This can lead to hearing loss.
Inflammation of the Eustachian tube can occur both against the background of high temperature, and without it. In the chronic form of the disease, the symptoms can be completely erased and appear only during exacerbations. With early treatment, the prognosis is good. If treatment is not carried out or started late, there is a high risk of developing purulent otitis media.
The cavity between the eardrum and the nasopharynx is called the Eustachian tube. It serves to ventilate, drain mucus, and connect with the surrounding atmosphere to create normal pressure in the cochlea of the middle ear. To remove dust microparticles and pathogenic bacteria, special mucus is secreted in the nasopharynx, which binds them and then is removed through the nose when sneezing. If the body's immunity is weakened, then a malfunction in the Eustachian tube system may occur. In this article, we consider what symptoms and treatment methods exist when a malfunction of such an important organ in the nasopharynx occurs.
Prevention of inflammation of the Eustachian tube consists in strengthening the body's immune forces, timely treatment of diseases conducive to this pathology, and avoiding hypothermia. In addition, it is necessary to carry out the rehabilitation of foci of chronic infection.
To strengthen the general condition of the body, nutritional correction, enrichment of the diet with necessary vitamins and minerals, and a sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables are necessary. Dosed physical activity, at least three hours a week, also strengthens the immune system and has a beneficial effect on human health.
If acute inflammation occurs 3 times within 6 months or 4 times a year, we refer to recurrent otitis media. In this case, it is recommended to give the child pressure in the tube into the ear drum to avoid a continuous return of inflammation.
Chronic bronchitis usually lasts at least 3 months. Due to the chronic presence of secretions in the tympanic cavity, it leads to tissue proliferation and the formation of so-called mucous membranes of growths. Polyps, calcifications or retraction of the tympanic membrane, tympanic membrane adhesions with the middle ear bones or permanent perforation of the tympanic repeated discharge discharge. All of these forms lead to hearing loss.
Avoiding bad habits improves blood circulation and microcirculation. Timely seeking medical help eliminates the aggravation of the infectious process and prevents complications such as inflammation of the Eustachian tube.
To maintain the health of the ears, it is also necessary to avoid hypothermia, and during epidemics, regularly rinse the nasal cavity with saline solutions, focus on prevention and vitamin complexes, especially vitamin C.
Reasons for inflammation
The disease can occur after colds, when the general immunity of the body is weakened. Weakening of the body can be caused in the autumn - winter period due to temperature changes, hanging air humidity, lack of vitamins in the spring. Being in the same room with patients with acute respiratory infections also contributes to a large penetration of pathogenic microbes into the mucosa.
Usually, the disease begins quickly, especially after untreated ARI. As a rule, the patient feels stuffy nose, because of which it is impossible to breathe. There may be fluid in the ear canal, accompanied by a characteristic gurgle. There may be dizziness, unpleasant pain in the ear. All this is caused by severe swelling of the mucous membrane inside the Eustachian tube. Because of this, the passage is blocked and there is no connection with atmospheric air, the pressure balance is disturbed. Insufficient pressure arises inside, which draws the eardrum into the inner passage. By these characteristic symptoms, it is possible to judge the inflammation of the Eustachian tube. Diagnosis is by an otolaryngologist who makes a final diagnosis.
Diseases associated with inflammation of the Eustachian tube
Inflammation of the Eustachian tube and eardrum is called turbo-otitis. It can be expressed in two forms: acute and chronic. The acute form, caused by a strong narrowing of the passage due to swelling of the mucosa, which entails strong discomfort and a decrease in pressure in the inner ear. The patient complains of tinnitus, dizziness, hearing loss.
Based on the examination, the results of the tests, the doctor makes a diagnosis and prescribes treatment. If treatment is ineffective or the patient evades it, then the acute form of the disease can turn into a chronic one.
The effectiveness of treatment depends on the severity of the patient. All medical procedures are aimed at restoring the functions of the mucous membrane and reducing its swelling. Prescribe vasoconstrictor drugs, antimicrobial drugs, warming compresses, rinsing the nasopharynx with decoctions of herbs. It is also necessary to take care of the appointment of drugs to increase the protective functions of a weakened body.
During treatment, so that the mucus with microbes does not flow into the internal auditory canal, it is necessary to remove the mucus without effort, i.e. it is forbidden to blow your nose strongly. The fluid can sometimes be removed from the nasopharynx with special catheters.
When the nasal mucosa has already recovered, and the hearing is still reduced, an ear blowing or the introduction of special medications is prescribed. Thus, pathogenic moisture is removed through the nasopharynx from the ear canal.
All treatment procedures are under the supervision of a doctor who evaluates the effectiveness of the impact of a particular method.
Inflammation of the Eustachian tube may result in hearing loss. Do not ignore it and promptly seek help from a specialist in a medical institution who will correctly establish the diagnosis and prescribe effective treatment for the disease.
Inflammation of the Eustachian tube is considered a serious pathological condition, which requires mandatory medical intervention. Without the right treatment, everything can end in failure. Therefore, if you find the first alarming symptoms, you must consult a doctor.
Signs of inflammation of the Eustachian tube
The auditory tube is relatively small in size, with an average length of about 3.5 cm and a thickness of about 2 mm, but performs a number of very important functions: acoustic, ventilation, drainage and protective. Incorrect and untimely treatment of Eustachian tube inflammation can lead to hearing loss and even complete deafness.
The auditory tube plays the role of not only the connecting channel, but also provides air exchange, removal of fluids from the ear cavity. It also helps to maintain an optimal level of air pressure inside the body and prevents the penetration of infection by producing mucus that destroys bacteria.
With dysfunction of this channel, its mucous membranes thicken and the lumen narrows, as a result of which metabolic processes are disrupted and pressure inside the organ decreases, fluid stagnation occurs and the inflammatory process begins.
The main signs of the disease:
- Sensation of stuffiness or water in the ear
- Hearing impairment
- The appearance of pain in the ear
- Sometimes fever, dizziness, headaches.
The initial stage of the disease, as a rule, is accompanied only by discomfort, pain and changes in body temperature are not typical for it. The danger lies in the rapid progress of inflammation: the disease can go into serious form in a few hours.
Specialists call the inflammation of this tube eustachitis, its simultaneous lesion with the middle ear can be diagnosed as tubo otitis, salpingo otitis, tubotempanitis. There are two forms of the disease: acute and chronic.
In the presence of the above symptoms, it is necessary to visit an ENT specialist, only he can correctly diagnose the disease and prescribe treatment that is effective for a particular case.
Diagnosis of the disease consists in an examination using an otoscope, a test for hearing level and determining the degree of patency of the Eustachian tube.
The infectious nature of the disease is determined by laboratory analysis of a swab from the throat. However, science does not stand still and in progressive specialized clinics use more sophisticated equipment.
Causes of the disease
The development of the inflammatory process in the Eustachian tube is called eustachitis in the medical literature. This disease can affect both a child and an adult.
Most often, it has a bacterial origin and is provoked by streptococci, staphylococci. In a child, the inflammatory process develops due to tissue damage by pneumococci or various viruses.
К другим причинам появления заболевания относят:
- наличие склонности к сильным аллергическим реакциям на всевозможные внешние раздражители,
- индивидуальная особенность организма, выраженная в повышенной секреторной активности тканей,
- the presence of external formations in the nasopharynx (adenoids are often detected in children),
- the presence of chronic infectious diseases affecting the nasopharynx,
- structural defects of the nasal septum,
- sharp jumps in atmospheric pressure,
- improper removal of mucus from the nose,
- acute respiratory infections
- weakened protective functions of the body.
Methods of treatment of eustachitis depend on the severity of the disease and the reasons that provoked it. In this regard, it is imperative to inform the doctor about previously transferred diseases and a tendency to allergies. Therapeutic measures to combat this ailment have six main areas:
- Removal of puffiness of the Eustachian tube. To reduce swelling of the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx and tube, respectively, doctors prescribe the use of vasoconstrictor drops: Sanorin, Vibrocil, Tizin, Nazol, Nazivin, etc. Mucolytic agents: Ambroskol, Sinupret and others help to eliminate the thick liquid clogging the passage.
- Stopping allergic reactions if they caused inflammation. For this purpose, they resort to the following drugs: Claritin, Desporatadine, Suprastin, Zodak, Citrine, etc.
- The elimination of the inflammatory process. To do this, apply a solution of penicillin in ephedrine, which is instilled into the nose. This procedure helps to restore the functions of the auditory tube and the destruction of the infectious pathogen, has a bactericidal effect. Sometimes they resort to the help of local hormonal drugs: Nazonex, Avamis, etc., which have pronounced anti-inflammatory properties.
- Restoring the patency of the Eustachian tube involves blowing the ears using the Politzer method or through catheterization. They also resort to physical procedures (UHF, UFO), pneumatic massage of the eardrum and laser therapy in the area of the mouth of the Eustachian tube. These measures are often used at the stage when the inflammation is eliminated, but the hearing is not restored.
- Strengthening the overall immune system, because a weakened body is much more difficult to cope with the inflammatory process. Vitamins and immunomodulators are excellent helpers in the fight against any infection.
- Elimination of the cause of the disease. If necessary, sanitize foci of chronic infection: removal of the tonsils or adenoids, antibiotic therapy, etc.
Only a doctor can identify the initial cause of the disease, determine the recovery paths and the correct methods of treatment. In turn, a lot also depends on the patient: it is necessary to turn to a specialist in time and fulfill all his recommendations.
The acute inflammatory process that appeared in the Eustachian tube is most often triggered by viral diseases. Initially, they affect the upper respiratory tract, after which the problem can affect other organs. In this case, the following signs of inflammation are distinguished:
- a sharp increase in body temperature to 38 degrees or more,
- a person complains of tinnitus (noisy disease),
- hearing is much worse
- during a conversation, a person more clearly hears his own speech,
- the pain is mild
- nasal congestion, which can transform into a runny nose.
During the examination, the doctor noted a significant decrease in patency of the Eustachian tube, marked swelling.
Traditional medicine and homeopathy for inflammation of the Eustachian tube
Often, unconventional methods lead to very good results, but before using them, you should definitely consult a doctor. If the cause of eustachitis is an allergic reaction, the use of herbal remedies can significantly harm. There are also individual intolerance and side effects, only a competent doctor can take into account all the nuances and characteristics of the body.
The most popular traditional medicine for inflammation of the auditory tube:
- Herbal decoctions. Apply calendula, chamomile, oak bark. These drugs are prepared quite easily: two tablespoons of the dry mixture are brewed with a glass of boiling water and infused for two hours. The mixture, in a slightly warmed form, is dripped into the nostril or ear. These plants are considered excellent antiseptics and will help relieve inflammation faster.
- Aloe and agave juice diluted with a small amount of warm boiled water is recommended to be dripped into the nose and used for washing the ears.
- Boiled potatoes are a well-known remedy for colds, with eustachitis it is also effective. Application: boil potatoes and breathe over steam, covering themselves with a towel for several minutes.
- Garlic. This is an excellent tool in the fight against infection, you need to grind it to a pulp consistency, add vegetable oil and insist for two weeks. The resulting infusion is dripped into the ears and nose.
- Wrap chopped onion in a piece of gauze and insert into the affected ear for 10 minutes. The procedure is repeated from one to two weeks once a day.
- Among homeopathic remedies for inflammation of the Eustachian tubes, Fitolyakka, Silicea and Damascus rose are widely used.
Alternative recipes are recommended to be used in conjunction with conservative therapy, relying entirely on them, neglecting the doctor’s prescriptions, is still not worth it. Yes, and to establish the original cause of inflammation on their own is unlikely to succeed, respectively, it is likely to drown out the disease, but not completely get rid of it.
Chronic course of the disease
The chronic course of the disease is characteristic in the absence of proper treatment in the presence of acute processes or when polyps, cysts, or other defects in the organs of the ENT group are present. Signs of this form of eustachitis are called:
- pronounced decrease in patency in the area of the Eustachian tube,
- deformation of the eardrum, which negatively affects the quality of hearing,
- pain becomes permanent.
The chronic course of the inflammatory process in the Eustachian tube provokes severe complications. These include or secretory otitis media, affecting the middle ear. Often chronic. It is accompanied by inflammation localized in the eardrum.
Causes of eustachitis and preventive measures
The disease occurs due to hypothermia, against the background of a weakened immune system, due to infectious inflammation in the nasopharynx. It can manifest itself in the form of complications after flu, sore throat, pharyngitis, acute or chronic sinusitis, etc.
Preventing illness is always easier than curing it. Simple preventive measures will help to avoid inflammation of the auditory tube:
- Timely treatment of all viral and infectious diseases
- Hardening and proper nutrition, strengthening immunity
- Weather clothing and colds
- Correction of pathologies of the structure of the nasopharynx (polyps, cysts, etc.)
- Correction of allergic reactions
While watching the video you will learn about the Eustachian tube.
Health is a precious gift. It remains to wish everyone to own this treasure as long as possible and protect it in all possible ways.
If the inflammatory process is caused by an allergic reaction of the body, in addition to the above symptoms, other signs will be observed:
- severe nasal congestion,
- lack of pain
- a slight increase in body temperature.
Varieties of Eustachyitis
Inflammation of the Eustachian tube can occur in different ways, on the basis of which several forms of the disease are distinguished:
- catarrhal. It is able to transform into and be accompanied by the formation of adhesions,
- granulation. Accompanied by the formation of connective tissue in the affected area,
- cicatricial. It provokes scarring of inflamed tissues,
- atrophic. Accompanied by the formation of zones of necrosis,
- vasomotor. It is accompanied by a violation of the tone of the blood vessels.
Also, the inflammatory process can be unilateral or bilateral.
Tissue swelling removal
To relieve swelling of the Eustachian tube and nasopharynx, special vasoconstrictor drops are simultaneously prescribed. They are taken strictly according to the established scheme, so as not to provoke addiction. The most popular drugs from this group:
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Elimination of an allergic reaction
If eustachitis is caused by an allergy, as indicated by symptoms, an antihistamine should be taken. It will quickly eliminate all disturbing symptoms. The most popular antihistamines include:
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Other therapeutic measures
In the presence of chronic diseases of an infectious nature that can affect different systems in the human body, funds are prescribed to strengthen immunity. These include various vitamin complexes and immunomodulators. In some cases, sanitation of chronic foci of inflammation is indicated - removal of tonsils, adenoids, the use of antibacterial therapy.
To prepare healing infusions for the treatment of inflammation, you can use various herbs:
To get an effective medicine, two tablespoons of plant material are poured 235 ml of boiling water. This mixture is left for 2 hours, after which it is filtered. The resulting infusion several times a day is instilled into the nostril or ear. These plants have pronounced antiseptic properties, so they will help to quickly cope with inflammation.
Aloe juice and agave
For treatment, you can use a single component or their mixture, which is diluted in a small amount of water. The medicine is used to instill a nose or rinse the ears. This procedure is repeated several times a day until the inflammation disappears.
Boiled potatoes have long been used to treat colds. It can also be used to treat inflammation localized in the Eustachian tube. To do this, boil the potatoes, after which they breathe over its steam, hiding in a towel.
Onions are crushed, wrapped in gauze and inserted into the problem ear for 10 minutes. This procedure is repeated daily until relief comes.
A few cloves of garlic are chopped and poured with vegetable oil. This mixture is insisted for 2 weeks. An antiseptic infusion is instilled into the ears and nose to get rid of inflammation.
To prevent inflammation and swelling of the Eustachian tube, it is necessary to adhere to some preventive measures:
- proper and timely treatment of any infectious or viral diseases,
- compliance with the rules of good nutrition,
- it is necessary to dress according to the weather to prevent colds,
- in the presence of pathologies of the nasopharynx (polyps, cysts), it is necessary to eliminate them as soon as possible surgically,
- in the presence of allergies, it is necessary to avoid contact with all irritants and take antihistamines in a timely manner,
- you need to lead an active lifestyle, not neglect physical education and sports.
Eustachitis responds well to treatment if you adhere to all the recommendations of doctors. Full recovery occurs in almost 100% of cases, and the risk of complications is minimal.
Video: Eustachitis - symptoms and treatment
In the normal state, the Eustachian tube is closed. At the time of ingestion of food, due to the function of certain muscles located in the soft palate, the Eustachian tube opens and facilitates the penetration of air into the middle ear. So there is a constant aeration of this area.
If aeration is disturbed for some reason, then atmospheric pressure exceeds the pressure inside the eardrum. As a result of this, her position changes, she becomes drawn in, approaches the wall of the promotorium. There is inflammation of the Eustachian tube, symptoms, the treatment of which is described in this article.
Cause of disease
All diseases that are accompanied by swelling of the mucous membrane and catarrhal changes in the nose and nasopharynx are able to cause simultaneous inflammation of the Eustachian tube, the treatment of which should be started in a timely manner.
Pathology is provoked by the following reasons:
- runny nose, acute or chronic
- hypertrophic process in the posterior ends of the lower shells,
- the presence of adenoids,
- neoplasms of the nasopharynx,
- often recurring tonsillitis,
- hypertrophic process in the tonsils, capable of causing secondary pathological changes,
- the presence of anterior or posterior tamponade with nosebleeds after surgery.
Typically, tubo-otitis is caused by staphylococci or streptococci. In children, the disease is often provoked by pneumococci, as well as diseases of a viral nature.
Nasopharyngeal infection extends to the Eustachian tube, as well as the middle ear. As a result, its permeability sharply decreases.
If the patient has a predisposition to allergies, swelling of the middle ear and increased secretion, the risk of the onset of the disease increases significantly. All manifestations of the pathological process depend on the form that it took. Inflammation of the Eustachian tube, the treatment of which is carried out by a laryngologist, can be either acute or chronic.
How does the acute form manifest
The acute form, as a rule, develops against the background of a viral lesion of the body, a cold, which inflames the nasopharynx. With the process proceeding in an acute form, the patient notes a stable general state of health. The temperature indicator usually does not exceed 38 ºС. Intense pain is not felt. The patient may complain of hearing loss, nasal congestion, increased hearing of his own voice (feeling as if an echo is heard), apparent transfusion, constant noise.
On examination, swelling of the auditory tube, the narrowing of its lumen, and the mucous membrane are irritated. A closed eardrum provokes a decrease in pressure and expansion of blood vessels, the walls of which are thinning. This causes blood to leak through the capillaries.
How does the chronic course of the disease manifest
If in the acute form all the symptoms are temporary and after some time they cease to bother, then in the chronic course they are persistent. Atrophy in the area of the mucous membrane of the tympanic membrane and membrane is inherent in a chronic disease. The membrane becomes cloudy, necrosis can form.
In a chronic course, it also deforms, the lumen of the tube narrows, the hearing is significantly impaired, some local areas turn red. Marked sclerosis can be complicated which provokes the occurrence of adhesions that violate the patency of the Eustachian tube and ossicles in the ear.
How is the disease manifested in children
The anatomy of the ear canal of a child has great differences from the structure in an adult. Therefore, the child is more prone to ear diseases. The signs of eustachitis in infancy are exactly the same as in adulthood. The following symptoms are noted:
- the presence of noise
- nasal congestion,
- hearing loss.
What to do if inflammation has arisen in such an area as Eustachian tube? Treatment at home is not recommended. You should contact a specialist.
How does inflammation of the Eustachian tube stop? Treatment begins after a thorough diagnosis and finding out the cause of the inflammatory process. Having determined it, it is necessary to eliminate the pathogen, so that recovery goes away as quickly as possible.
The disease requires immediate treatment, since the acute form can quickly take a chronic course and lead to persistent hearing loss. And this significantly reduces the quality of life of the patient.
The treatment of eustachitis depends on the cause that caused it. In the case of pathology of the nasopharynx, therapy is aimed at its elimination. When surges in atmospheric pressure when flying on an airplane or raising and lowering in water, ear blowing is applied using ordinary swallowing and a sharp exhalation with closed nostrils and a closed mouth.
Inflammation of the Eustachian tube (treatment, drugs is chosen only by the laryngologist!) Is stopped by various medications. The main direction is the use of drugs that contribute to the narrowing of the vessels of the Eustachian tube and nasopharynx. This group includes Tizin, Nazivin, Rinostop, Galazolin, Xylen. They are issued without a prescription. Drops are introduced into the nose 2-3 times a day. Use these funds can be no more than five days.
Antibacterial drugs include Polydex, Sofradex, Normax, Dancil ear drops. Antihistamines - Suprastin, Erius, Claritin, Tavegil, Telfast, Zirtek - act as additional therapy.
In some cases, local hormones are prescribed. For example, "Nazonex", "Avamys", "Flixonase" are used. They are distinguished by a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect.
If found in areas such as the Eustachian tube, inflammation, treatment involves the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-microbial agents. Usually used drugs that are buried in the ear (3-4 drops three times a day). Apply them should be no more than 10 days.
As local preparations against inflammation, furatsilin and boric acid 3% are used. Для орального применения могут быть назначены такие антибиотики, как "Амоксиклав", "Цефуроксим", "Афеноксин".They are taken twice a day, at a dose of 250-700 mg, strictly as prescribed by the doctor.
Purging the Eustachian tube through a catheter is highly effective. Hydrocortisone or adrenaline is administered. With proper therapy, the disease stops within a few days. If measures were taken late, then the disease can acquire a chronic form, which can be treated with difficulty.
If the process is neglected, surgical intervention may be necessary. An incision is made in the area of the tympanic membrane into which a catheter is inserted to aspirate fluid. The operation is performed under general anesthesia.
To enhance the effect of treatment, physiotherapy is performed, and compresses are also used. Of the physiotherapy should be noted UV, UHF region of the nose, laser therapy.
How else can inflammation of the auditory Eustachian tube be eliminated? Treatment after stopping an acute course with preserved decreased hearing involves the use of a method of blowing the auditory tubes or pneumatic massage. For blowing, the Politzer method or catheterization is used.
Politzer Method and Catheterization
According to the Politzer, it is carried out by means of a cylinder made of rubber, which is connected by a rubber tube to an olive. Oliva is inserted into the patient’s nostril. The wings of the nose are pinched. For air to enter the eardrum, the patient must swallow air and pronounce the word “cuckoo” loudly in syllables. When stressed on a syllable, the palatine curtain is raised and pressed against the back wall of the pharynx. At this point, the doctor makes a slight compression of the balloon. Air entry control is carried out using an otoscope.
With successful manipulations, as a rule, the patient's condition is optimized after 1-3 procedures. A hearing improvement of several days is possible. In this case, an additional purge is required after 1-2 days. Procedures are carried out for 2-3 weeks.
At low efficiency of the Politzer method, Air is blown into the eardrum using a special ear catheter and a rubber balloon. After the manipulator