Indirect heating boiler is a storage tank, which is not dependent on energy resources (gas, electricity, etc.). Inside the container made of stainless steel, there is TEN1 in the form of a spiral.
Cold water enters the tank through an inlet pipe located at the bottom of the device. Water heating in the unit is carried out using a moving coolant heating system. The hot water outlet pipe is located at the top. To use the tank was convenient, it is equipped with ball valves. The outer part of the device is covered with insulating material.
The water heater diagram is presented below.
The advantages of the unit include:
- the ability to connect to a central heating system,
- installation near a heating boiler,
- low cash costs when installing the circuit,
- economical use of energy resources,
- water supply with a constant temperature indicator.
- Installation of a boiler requires a large area or a separate room.
- To heat a large volume of water will take a lot of time, while the level of heating of the room will noticeably decrease.
- Scale quickly forms on the coil. It needs to be cleaned with chemicals. You can apply a mechanical method. The procedure is carried out twice a year.
Since the principle of operation of the device is uncomplicated, anyone can build a water heater with their own hands. The whole process is built on the assembly of components.
To make a water heater with your own hands, you need to perform the following steps:
- prepare a special container,
- make a coil
- provide thermal insulation
- assemble a water heater yourself,
- to connect the heating element,
- provide cold water
- build pipe routing,
- install water taps.
The right choice of capacity
The storage tank acts as a tank. The indicator of its volume depends on the needs of users in hot water. The calculation is carried out according to the following principle: 50-70 liters of water per person daily. For a family of four, a 200-liter capacity will do.
When choosing a material, you should pay attention to how susceptible it is to corrosion. As a rule, aluminum alloy or plastic is used. Do-it-yourself boiler can be made of steel treated with rust protection agents.
The basis of the storage water heater can be a pipe from a heat main. So you get a seamless cylinder. But experts advise making a water heater from a material such as stainless steel. The price for it is acceptable. Iron, as you know, releases substances harmful to the body. A stainless steel water heater will be absolutely safe for health.
You should also think about the weight of the pipe. A running meter 720X10 weighs approximately 140 kg. The price of one kg is 12 p. How much does a stainless steel cost? The price of 1 kg of the AISI304 series is 130 p. The weight of the sheet with a size of 2000x1000x1 is 16 kg.
Making a boiler with your own hands will cost you 2000 rubles. If the metal is bent along the length, you will get a cylinder with a height of 1 m and a diameter of about 63 cm. A thicker steel sheet will not work, since it is difficult to work with it. The volume of the tank will be approximately 318 liters.
The result is a wonderful home-made tank in which you can install a heater for factory-made water. Its power should be 6 kW. He will be able to heat 300 liters of water in three hours. If you apply a heater with a power of 2 kW, then you need a whole night.
The tank is supplied with two openings. One is located at the top of the case. It serves to supply hot water. The other is downstairs. Its function is to supply cold water. Each hole is equipped with ball valves.
An alternative to the tank is a gas cylinder.
How to do it yourself
Typically, boilers are powered from the network and have a wiring to the mixer. But how can you save money? And what do summer residents, gardeners and just lovers of summer holidays in the village do?
For those who like to do something with their own hands or have a technical education, it will not be difficult to make a flow-through boiler.
The simple design itself is repairable and productive - all this is possible for budget money. A home-made flow-through boiler is installed by spiraling a pancake around an electric stove or gas stove.
To make a water heater at home, you will need:
- Copper pipe, as copper is an excellent heat conductor. Sometimes they use nichrome wire, reeling it several times.
[advice]Note: the length of the pipe does not affect the amount of heat transferred from the source, so in this case it is not necessary to clutter the structure with additional rings. [/ advice]
- Rubber hose (preferably new).
- Rubber gaskets suitable for the diameter of the hose and metal clamps.
In order to do everything correctly and safely, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the technical documentation of the electric (gas) stove and determine its potential.
- Measure the diameter of the pancake electric stove or burner.
- Bend the copper pipe into a spiral in diameter slightly larger than the diameter of the plate so that the spiral outlets protrude 20-30 cm from the plate. It is necessary that the spiral fits snugly to the base of the plate and does not have distortions. Make sure the spiral has smooth, smooth edges.
- Fasten the spiral with the help of temples and bolts (you can use another fixing bracket for fastening).
- Connect the rubber hose to the spiral outlets and secure it with a metal clamp.
- Connect the other end of the hose to the mixer and install it along the sink.
- Turn on the water and check the system for leaks.
[warning]It's important to know: Before turning off the water, you must first turn off the heating element. If you do the opposite, then the spiral can burn. Keep in mind that the lower the pressure of the outgoing water, the hotter it is. [/ Warning]
In case of overheating of the spiral, it is forbidden to include water - this can lead to rupture of the metal. Turn off the gas (electricity) and allow the metal to cool for a while.
In order to control the temperature of the water from the instantaneous water heater, you can install a bimetallic plate on it from a conventional oil boiler or iron. Cheap price, but it solves a lot of problems. And thanks to the convenient handle, even a child can adjust.
All parameters can be varied, since, in fact, a home-made boiler relies on the potential and capabilities of a gas or electric stove.
Gas cylinder boiler
If you decide to make a boiler out of a gas cylinder, then it is better to purchase it new and without a valve. If an old tank is used, hot water may have a gas odor.
The cylinder needs a preliminary primer. To this end, it is cut into two halves. To prevent an explosion, we recommend pre-filling it with water. The interior of the structure is cleaned and primed. This prevents rusting. After that, the cylinder is brewed.
Two holes are cut out in the container, designed to drain hot and cold water. At the cold water inlet, the supply pipe is equipped with a check valve. This prevents leakage of water from the tank.
In order to get an indirect type heater that will operate from the heating system, in addition to the outlets for hot and cold water, two more holes are made for installing a heat exchanger. In it, one pipe is adjacent to another.
The coil is installed in the center of the tank or along its walls. Pipes are welded to its inlet and outlet pipe.
If you want your device to stand, then supports should be welded to it. For the attachment, loops in the form of “ears” will be required.
A 32 mm nut is welded to the place where the heater will be installed. It must have an internal thread. It is desirable to install a heating element for water with the presence of thermoregulation or a signaling sensor. Its power should be 1.2-2 kW.
The result is an indirect heating boiler. In this case, the gas cylinder is the main structural element.
There are undeniable advantages of a boiler, consider them:
- Temperature sensor that works automatically. In the event of a malfunction, it simply turns off. If you look from the point of view of fire safety, then of course, the production boiler wins, as it is equipped with several types of locks. But if you consider the situation with homemade - then everything is at your discretion.
- Water flow sensor and pressure sensor. Of course, the boiler eliminates pressure drops, makes water impacts, and also easily copes with a large pressure of water. To save water with a boiler is beneficial only if it is small. For example, a 50-liter boiler consumes a sufficient amount of electricity, so that the savings in water are practically not noticeable. As soon as insufficient pressure appears in the water supply system (less than 0.6 bar), the boiler automatically shuts off. As for the instantaneous water heater, even with a minimum flow of water, the amount of discharged liters of water per minute is about 1.5 liters.
On sale there are instantaneous water heaters having a production assembly and a quality guarantee.
They are fixed in place of the crane and have a presentable appearance. For added safety, the enclosure must be earthed, as the equipment is powered.
In more expensive models, a shower head is included in the kit, which is very convenient for summer residents. But, unfortunately, the price of such a device is very impressive.
[advice]Note: It is not recommended to install a flow heater in the bathtub, as this may cause a fire. Best of all, run plastic or metal pipes along the wall and install them in the shower. [/ Advice]
If you fix a pan or any large capacity to the flow heater, it will also become cumulative. To screw in the hoses, use a brass nipple.
Installation of a metal hinged type crane will greatly simplify the operation of the drive. Without a tap, it will look more like a washstand, which is very impractical. Pay attention to the tightness of the drive (the cover must be welded with argon welding) and the entire structure. Insulate the case and make it safer.
When using an accumulating flow heater, pay attention to the meter reading: in rural areas, the maximum power is about 4 kW.
If a conventional electric kettle draws 1.5 -2 kW, and a TV 1 kW, then you can already calculate which electrical appliances can be turned on at the same time and which ones not. If the meter is automatic, then it will simply knock out the plugs, as fuses that can be replaced will blow. But if your meter does not have fuses, then turning on the pump for pumping water, an electric stove and a TV at the same time can cause a fire in the wiring.
How to make a coil?
The coil is an important part of the device. For its basis, you can take a metal or metal-plastic pipe with a small diameter. As a rule, copper or brass are used, as they are characterized by a high level of heat transfer. The diameter of the coil manufacturer can choose at his discretion. The main condition is that its contact with water is maximum.
The serpentine tube is spirally screwed onto a cylinder-shaped mandrel. For this purpose, a log or pipe with a large diameter is used. When winding the coil, it is necessary to monitor the turns. They should not touch each other.
Do not wind tight, as removing the coil from the mandrel will be very difficult.
The number of turns on the coil is directly dependent on the volume and height of the tank. As a rule, 1.5 kW of the coil’s thermal power is used for every 10 liters.
If you have a broken kettle, then the water heater can be built by removing the following parts from the housing:
- the spiral that is under the heating pancake,
- on / off button,
- temperature sensors
- power cord.
Take a small metal or plastic box and screw all the parts to its base, then you should solder the button and sensors. Attach a hose to one of the exits of the spiral and secure the entire structure with self-tapping screws. Turn on the water and check operation. This option is perfect for summer cottages, since the output of warm water is small.
Summing up, we can say that the cost of manufacturing a home-made instantaneous water heater depends on the presence or absence of any parts. And then you can apply imagination as you like. The main thing is to understand the essence and schematic structure, as well as the technical features of the system.
Watch the video in which the user clearly demonstrates how to make a instantaneous water heater with your own hands:
To minimize heat loss, the tank should be wrapped with a layer of thermal insulation.
For this purpose apply:
- construction foam
- polyurethane foam
- mineral wool.
Some craftsmen use a foil-based laminate backing. The water heater is wrapped in this case, like a thermos. The insulation is fastened with wire, glue or strip ties. We recommend warming the entire case.
Sheathing will provide not only long-term preservation of hot water, but also reduce the duration of heating the tank, which will reduce the flow of coolant. Without a well-equipped thermal insulation, the water in the device will cool quickly.
Often resort to the construction of a double tank: a small tank is placed inside a large one. The space created between them also performs a heat-insulating function.
To secure the container, hinges are welded onto the upper part of its body, and a metal corner is mounted on the wall to which they are attached.
Other methods of manufacturing a water heater
You can build a water heater that functions from the sun. This is a fairly common design, which is characterized by efficiency. The device is often found in country houses. The manufacture of the device is not particularly difficult, so many can build it with their own hands.
- large capacity tank (100 l or more),
- PVC pipes for filling the tank and supplying water to it,
- corners made of steel 20 mm in size or square bars made of wood 50 mm in size for the frame under the tank.
It is more expedient to use plastic barrels as a container. They are distinguished by durability. They should stand in a sunny place in which there is no wind. As a rule, for installation choose the roof of a summer shower.
In order for the barrel to heat up better, it needs to be painted black. On the leeward side, screens are mounted for protection. They are constructed from boards coated with reflective material such as foil. In this case, the sun's rays are directed to the tank and increase the temperature of the water. In hot weather, in a container of 200 liters, you can get water, the temperature of which will be 45 ºС.
Polyethylene bottle water heater
Do-it-yourself water heater from ordinary plastic bottles can be made in one day. They form the basis of the storage tank. The number of bottles depends on the desired capacity.
For installation you will need:
- PVC pipes
- two ball valves or taps.
First of all, bottles are prepared. A hole is drilled in the bottom of each, the diameter of which is equal to the diameter of the neck. A neck of another is inserted into the opening of the bottom of the bottle. So their connection occurs. Each battery consists of 10 bottles. The number of batteries is unlimited. All joints are sealed.
Ready-made modules are located on the south side of the roof on the internal waves of the slate coating. The output of each section is connected to a PVC pipe, which is perpendicular to them. The insertion of each section is carried out by analogy with the connection of the bottles into the battery with subsequent glue processing of all joints.
In the main pipe, to which the outputs of each battery are connected, valves are mounted on both sides for supplying cold water and draining hot water.
Such a home-made water heater has a fairly high level of functionality. To take a shower, one person needs 100 liters of water. Based on this indicator, it is possible to calculate the volume of the structure.
In summer, in sunny weather, you can heat 60 l of water up to 45 ºС per hour. This temperature is quite suitable for domestic and household needs in the country.
DIY water heater: choose the type of device
Несмотря на то что в домашних условиях накопительное устройство изготовить намного проще, следует, прежде всего, рассмотреть вариант сборки проточного водонагревателя. Such household appliances will instantly heat the water, and electricity will be consumed only when the device is turned on. Unlike boilers, installation of a flowing device does not require a lot of space, nor does it need to do thermal insulation of the device.
For heating water in both versions, a heater is used, but for the manufacture of a flowing device, a more powerful element will need to be purchased.
Powerful water heater
Of the additional details you can not do without the use of RCDs. This device will automatically disconnect the contacts if an electric leakage occurs. You should also stock up with large copper wires and tools for work.
DIY instantaneous water heater
For the manufacture of instantaneous water heater should prepare the necessary tools:
- Welding machine (inverter).
- Grinder with a nozzle for removing rust.
- Drill with a set of drill bits for metal.
For a flow-through version of a water heater, the following materials will be needed:
- Steel pipe, the length and diameter of which slightly exceed the width and length of the heater.
- TEN electric water power 4 kW.
- Sheet steel 3 mm thick.
- Corrosion-resistant paint.
- Bolt and nut M14.
When everything you need is cooked, you can begin to manufacture the device. The first thing to do is to thoroughly clean the metal surfaces from rust. To do this, use a grinder with a nozzle.
Grinder with rust remover
Then a rectangle is cut from the metal sheet, the minimum side of which should slightly exceed the outer diameter of the metal pipe. On a cut metal sheet, a drill makes 2 holes, the diameter of which should be 1 mm greater than the thickness of the foot of the heater. To arrange the holes at the required distance from each other, lower the ends of the contact rods in white paint and then lean the ends of the contacts to the plate, trying to make the marks equally spaced from the side faces of the plate. When the paint dries a little, it is necessary to drill metal on white points.
At the next stage, the plate thus prepared should be welded to the end of the pipe. Before performing this operation, the part must be grabbed lightly so that the holes made earlier are exactly in the middle. After the side plug is welded, the metal protruding beyond the outer diameter of the pipe is cut off with a grinder or gas cutter.
Then, having marked with a core at a distance of 20 mm 2 points that must be on the same line, holes with a diameter of 19 mm are made with a drill. These holes are necessary for welding threaded pipe sections to connect the water supply and remove heated fluid.
Given the need for grounding, it is imperative to weld an elongated M14 nut to the pipe, to which a conductor will be connected using a bolt.
In the next step, the electric heating element should be placed inside the pipe. The legs of the device should be carefully installed in the previously made holes, then tighten the fastening nuts with sufficient force. When installing the heater, it is imperative to wear rubber washers on the threaded part of the legs.
Sealing washers for TENA
Washers should be installed on the inside and outside of the device, and for greater reliability, apply high-temperature sealant to the surface of the gaskets.
Then the opposite end of the metal pipe should be hermetically sealed. For this purpose, a square piece of sheet steel should also be cut. The side of the square must be at least 50 mm larger than the outside diameter of the pipe. For reliable connection of the device with the plate, it must be laid on a flat surface, then installed exactly in the middle of the square, the device turned upside down by the heating legs so that the device nozzles are located strictly perpendicular to any of the faces of the lower square and gently weld the metal, trying not to overheat the improvised water heater too much.
When the device has completely cooled down, it is also set upside down on a wooden board and 4 holes are made in the corners of the lower plate with a 10 mm drill. Holes are needed to mount a homemade device to the wall.
Before installing the instantaneous water heater, its performance must be checked. For this purpose, you must connect the electric cable to the threaded contact of the heater, fill in the device, sufficient to fill the entire space, the amount of water and connect the device to the network.
TEN connection diagram
As soon as the water in the device boils, it should be de-energized. If there are no leaks, then a home-made heater should be painted in any color with a high-temperature paint for metal. Before carrying out this operation, pour water out of it, degrease the surface with a solvent, and paint the device using a spray gun.
Paint for radiators
When the paint dries, you can proceed to install the device in the plumbing system. To do this, install the device at an equal distance from the points of fluid sampling, and with the device facing upwards, attach it to the wall. For this purpose, you must first make 4 holes in a vertical surface. Using anchor bolts, a home-made electric heater is attached to the wall from the side of the plate in which special holes were made for this.
After the device is reliably fixed, a flexible hose with cold water is connected to one of the pipes from the water supply network, and the other is connected to the hot water circuit.
Flexible hot water hose
Then, water is supplied to the device and the water heater is tested for leakage by tap pressure. If no leaks are detected, then electricity should be connected to the home-made device.
Given the high power of the device, it is not recommended to use a standard plug to turn on the device. For the water heater, a separate electrical circuit should be allocated from the incoming electrical panel. You should also install an additional automatic fuse of 20 A, which should be in an accessible place, to turn on the device when necessary.
When using a heater of this design, it will be very inconvenient to turn on the device with a knife switch each time. For more comfortable use of the device, it is recommended to install a pressure switch in the water supply circuit after the heating device. And in front of the water heater, put a check valve so that in the absence of water in the water supply, the heater will not turn on automatically. When using such a scheme, water heating will be carried out only at that moment when the tap is open.
To automatically turn on the device, you can set thermostat directly into the water heater, but the installation of such a system must be done at the stage of manufacture of the device. The disadvantage of a water heating system with a built-in thermostat is that the device will work in heater mode, giving off some of the heat to the surrounding air. Losses can be reduced by covering the device with a heat insulator that is resistant to high temperatures. Despite the more complex design of such a system, the main difference from a device with a pressure sensor installed will be an instant supply of hot water when the tap is opened. Significant disadvantages include a greater consumption of electricity due to the more frequent inclusion of heating elements.
Thermostat for heating elements
Regardless of the type of system used, turning on the device, it is necessary to install a safety valve in the immediate vicinity of the heating device. During operation of the water heater, sticking of the relay or thermostat contacts may occur. In this case, the heating element will be constantly on, which will lead to boiling of water and the appearance of high pressure in the system, which can lead to depressurization of the most vulnerable sections of the water supply. The safety valve will reduce the pressure. Upon reaching a critical value of this indicator, the locking mechanism will open and part of the liquid will be removed to the sewer system.
Collected The electrical circuit itself must also have safety devices and mechanisms. Most often, to prevent electric shock, RCDs are installed that instantly turn off the power supply when an electric leak occurs to the housing. RCD is recommended, as well as the machine, to be installed only in the electric circuit of the water heater.
This device will reliably protect people from the effects of electric current even in the absence of a connected grounding conductor, but in order to increase efficiency, it is recommended to connect the device to ground. To do this, just connect the conductor from the home grounding system to the body of the water heater. Installation of the wire is carried out using a threaded connection to a nut that has previously been welded to a metal pipe.
If a home-made instantaneous electric water heater was manufactured according to the above instructions, the result is a reliable device that will fully provide itself with hot water.
How to make a thermostat for a water heater yourself
If the budget is very limited in the manufacture of a water heater, then you can make a thermostat for the water heater yourself. The thermal breaker is installed as follows:
- Remove from the faulty car any brand of thermal relay that controls the inclusion of forced cooling of the engine.
- Set the thread type of this part.
- Choose a suitable metal tube in diameter and use a tap to cut the internal thread.
- Make a hole in the instantaneous water heater and weld the threaded pipe.
- Screw in the thermal relay by first applying high-temperature sealant to the thread.
For the correct operation of the heating system, the heating element can not do without using an additional 12 V source and an intermediate relay. The relay installed in the system must be reverse acting, that is, open the circuit when a low voltage voltage is applied to the coil. This feature is connected with the fact that in a car the radiator blowing is switched on when a certain temperature value is exceeded, while the flow radiator must be turned off at the moment when the temperature value exceeds a critical value.
What can be done from the old Ariston heater
“Happy” owners of Ariston water heaters, after repeatedly replacing the heating element, decide to purchase and install a different brand of device. From the old device, an excellent version of a country shower is obtained, the water for which is heated by solar energy. To convert the device into a hot water tank, you must:
- To grill the external case of the device and remove it.
- Clean the inner tank from thermal insulation.
- Degrease the surface.
- Paint the tank in matt black with any metal paint.
- Install and connect the tank to the summer shower system.
Installation of the tank should be carried out at a height of at least 2.5 meters in an area open to sunlight. The most correct would be to install a water heater directly on the roof of a summer shower. The container should be installed in a vertical position, and the water connection must be made to the drain pipe of the device, because, unlike the electric model, in the summer shower, water will be drained by gravity.
This version of the country shower is the simplest, if you wish, you can make a more complex design of the device that heats the liquid due to solar energy.
Country version of a water heater
In the country, you can make homemade solar water heaters. The disadvantage of such devices is only the lack of heating during cloudy weather. The solar water heater is made of the following materials and parts:
- Old fridge.
- Water tank.
- A metal-plastic pipe with a diameter of 16 mm.
- Edged boards 200 mm wide.
- A sheet of cellular polycarbonate.
- 3 mm thick steel sheet.
- Black metal paints.
You will also need to purchase supplies for fastening materials and various adapters for connecting pipes. In addition, you will need to buy a low-power circulation pump.
The manufacture of a solar-powered water heater can be done in the following sequence:
- The rear radiator is removed from the refrigerator, and the copper tube is cut off at the place where the device is connected to the compressor and the freezer. When performing this operation, it is necessary to save the original fasteners of the part.
- A rectangle is cut out of a metal sheet by a grinder, the length and width of which should be 20 cm more than the parameters of the radiator of the refrigerator.
- One of the sides of the metal rectangle is cleaned, degreased and painted black. It is also necessary to paint the radiator of the refrigerator.
- When the paint dries, place a copper grate on the painted surface of the metal sheet so that it is equidistant from its corners.
- On the painted surface of the metal sheet, with any sharp object, notches are made under the holes of the copper radiator fastening.
- Then, at the marked points, it is necessary to drill holes whose diameter should correspond to the holes of the radiator mount.
- Along the perimeter of the metal sheet, it is also necessary to make holes with a diameter of 5 mm for attaching the side faces of the device. The distance between the holes should be about 100 mm.
- Adapters for connecting metal-plastic pipes are soldered to the cut ends of copper tubes with a gas soldering iron.
- From a board of 200 mm it is necessary to saw off pieces with a hacksaw. 2 segments should be equal to the width of the metal sheet, and the other two are 50 mm less than its length. After this, the wood must be treated with a protective compound.
- The pieces of the board are installed on the edge around the perimeter of the metal sheet and screwed onto the wood with self-tapping screws through previously made holes.
- A copper radiator is installed inside the “box”, which is bolted to the metal plate. Pipes with adapters for connecting a metal-plastic pipe should be withdrawn through holes made with a feather drill in one of the side boards.
- From a sheet of transparent honeycomb polycarbonate cut a rectangle that will be equal to the size of the metal base.
- Screw the polycarbonate rectangle to the ends of the boards with screws with rubber washers.
- It is necessary to install a freezer removed from the refrigerator in the water tank, the adapters should also be soldered to the copper tubes of it. The freezer should be fixed in the lower part of the tank, and the nozzles should be brought out to one of the side walls.
A self-made cottage water heater is installed as follows:
- The device is located in a sunny area.
- A tee is connected to one of the pipes of the water heater, to which a metal-plastic pipe and a crane are connected. Only a metal-plastic pipe should be connected to the second pipe.
- On the other hand, the pipes are connected to the nozzles exiting the water tank.
- It is also necessary to install a circulation pump in the system so that the coolant moves from the water heater to the water tank.
After connecting the pump to electricity, the oil will be heated by solar radiation, which will easily pass through the polycarbonate plate. Also, the greenhouse effect is formed in the device, which will make it possible to efficiently use the device even during variable cloud cover.
Heated oil will transfer water to the heat in the tank with a freezer installed, so it should be insulated with foam. The intake of hot water can be forced using a pump or gravity, but for this you will need to install the tank as high as possible. In order that the heated oil on the way to the heat exchanger does not cool down, the plastic pipes should be covered with installation foam along the entire length.
Making a home-made water heater will not only save money, but also gain invaluable experience in designing complex devices with your own hands. If you yourself need to make an electrode device, then you should definitely remember the safety precautions when handling devices operating on electricity.
Is it worth it to make a home-made water heater
To find out, you need to calculate the feasibility of the installation. Perhaps it is better to use the factory?
Make calculations. To do this, consider:
- The price of hot water is 1 cube approximately 200 rubles.
- The heating temperature is 65 degrees.
- Теплоемкость воды — 4200 Дж/кг.
- Температуру жидкости на входе — 8° зимой.
Расчет проводите по такой формуле:
А = 4200*(65 – 8)*1000 литров = 239,4 МДж
Далее нужно вычислить мощность нагревателя, чтобы довести жидкость до такой температуры:
N = А/t = 239,4 МДж/3600 = 66,5 кВт
Итог: самодельный прибор будет неразумно монтировать в доме или квартире. Дешевле оплатить услуги коммунальщиков.
However, it can be suitable for summer use, because the liquid at the inlet will no longer be 8 degrees, but 15 ° C. Count:
N = A / t = 4200 * (65 - 15) * 1000 L = 239.4 MJ / 3600 = 58 kW
- Heating from utilities does not always correspond to the declared 65 degrees. Most often it is 58-59 ° C.
- At the same time, a makeshift tank has heat losses that must be remembered.
Output: for constant use in the apartment a home-made water heater is not suitable - it is not profitable. It is easier to install a purchased boiler. But for a summer residence and a summer shower - a great option.
Type of fuel
The operation of the equipment is based on the coolant. What are they:
- Gas water heater. These are the most economical devices, however, self-manufacturing is strictly prohibited. Firstly, it is life threatening. In factories, the technician undergoes many tests and checks before entering the store. Secondly, even having made a heater, you will not receive permission for its operation. Moreover - you have to pay a fine.
- Wood boiler (indirect heating). The easiest way: you can organize a small stove, and install a boiler on top.
- Electric type most secure. It will be discussed further.
Pressure or non-pressure option
Accumulative electric water heater is better to choose a pressure head design - in the shower you will get a strong continuous flow. But for self-assembly, it will be necessary to organize a circulation pump, which will create pressure in the system. This complicates the task.
The non-pressure version is easier. To create it, you can choose any capacity: bucket, pan. The main thing is to install the tank higher so that there is a good flow of water.
The disadvantage of non-pressure systems is the inability to uniformly mix cold and hot liquids. Therefore, you need to heat up to 40 degrees and immediately use the contents.
What to make a tank
The housing is the basis of the future boiler. To create it, you will need a material resistant to corrosion and rust. Stainless steel, aluminum, plastic can be used. Iron is also used if it is treated with a special protective paint, otherwise water will be of little use.
Important! If you want to make a tank yourself, you will need a welding machine, as well as the experience of the welder.
As a result, water will accumulate in the tank and be heated by the heating element. You can take ready-made tanks: for example, to make the body of a gas cylinder, barrels of plastic.
How to make a tank for heating water
It is best to install a new cylinder for the water heater. First, prepare everything you need when working:
- Tool for welding.
- Tool for carving.
- Gas keys.
- Screwdriver Set.
- Balloon. If you buy a new one, choose without a valve. It will not be useful to you, and the product will cost more. If you are using the used version, treat the walls with a nitro primer to remove gas residues.
- 3.2 cm nuts.
- Heating element. Choose a heater with a thermal relay and low power.
- Tow or grease.
- Heat-resistant plastic pipes.
- Wiring and terminals for organizing connections.
Stages of manufacturing at home:
- Prepare the bottle. By welding, cut it along, carefully treat the inside with a nitro primer. Now it remains to weld the tank.
- In a clean container, make two holes with a drill: below for the intake of cold water, above for the withdrawal of heated liquid. The location corresponds to the laws of physics, because hot water rises.
- Weld to the holes of the tube. If both outlets are arranged from below, then the hot fluid tube should be the length of the casing.
- Install taps on the pipes. Connect a non-return valve to the cold, it will help to avoid the drain of contents into the sewer. A safety valve is placed on the hot, which will prevent the pressure from rising to a critical point.
- From above, where there was a gas valve, you need to install a heater. Secure it with 32 mm nuts. Insulate the element with tow or grease, and then fix the thermostat.
For ease of use, you can install the LED. So you will know when the heater turns on and off.
- To get a super-economical boiler, you need to insulate it. There is a simple way for this: a metal layer is selected over an area slightly larger than the body. Insert the finished body into the prepared cylinder from the sheet. Fill the remaining space with thermal insulation material: isotone, polyurethane foam. Lids are welded on top and bottom.
- To install metal connectors, connect to the pipes. Hang the appliance in its intended place - consider its weight in the filled state.
It remains to perform a test run. To do this, the tank is filled with water and inspected for leaks. If everything is in order, you can connect the heater.
A simple option for giving
The storage heater can be made quite simply if it works from sunlight.
Prepare for the organization:
- The tank is 100-200 liters.
- Hoses, pipes for water supply.
- Corners to create a frame or other fasteners.
- Make holes in the tank.
- Route pipes and hoses to them.
- Fix the structure in a calm place so that it is constantly exposed to sunlight.
- Take care of the gulf of water. A hose from a well may be used for this.
- Organize a shower outlet.
To enhance heating, the barrel can be painted with black paint. Arrange foil panels near the structure. They will reflect heat to the barrel, which will allow the contents to warm up by 40 degrees.
No empty capacity or barrels? Then use plastic bottles. Organizing an existing system is simple. You will need:
- At the bottom of each bottle, make a hole with a diameter with its neck.
- Insert the bottles one into the other until a battery of 10-12 pieces is assembled.
- In total it should turn out from five or more bands.
- Seal all connections.
- From above, at the entrance, install a tap. Do the same at the bottom exit.
- Organize a water supply or install containers.
Install the system on the roof for better heating. Depending on the size, the design will provide 2-3 people with warm water.
A home-made water heater is an excellent way out. In the summer, you can take a shower in the country, and if you make a device with a heating element, then it will help you out at any time of the year.